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女孩子在校学习成绩更加好

图片 1图片源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高夹钟高档学园阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正日益拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

一所高端塞尔维亚语寄宿高校的校长安东尼托Seldon称“那统统在于他们的大脑、肉体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy委员长伊凡Yip称“他们普及感到努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面贰个收取费用3.8万英镑一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另二个为其一大半学员提供午饭补贴,二分之一的学习者有特别教学供给。可是,它们都毫无二致致力于化解同样难点:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是叁个十几年前不也许想像的主题素材。直到19世纪70年间在此以前,男孩比女孩开支越来越长日子并获取越来越高等教学育,且更有望从大学毕业。未来,无论是富裕世界照旧更多的贫窭国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经记挂女孩贫乏科学信心的国策制订者们,以往越来越多时间在强行男孩眼下挥舞《哈利Porter》。瑞士政党已委托了一项关于“男孩危害”的切磋。澳大伯明翰开展了一项”男孩,男人,书和比特”的花色。仅仅几代时间内,前壹本性别差别消失,而后一种性别差距又出新。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以巴黎为集散地的丰足世界智库OECD于八月5号公布了一份简报中体现了这种反转。男士在数学领域的主导地位大概会不断。在平均年龄十三岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩半年。在自然科学领域,男女学生展现特出。可是,在翻阅领域,女孩一直保持超越地位,且距离变得越来越大。在这项商讨所涉及的六二十一个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现杰出。女孩平均比男孩超前一个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一步读书需求借助读写本领,OECD将它作为评估中最器重的技巧。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的基础本领时,年轻男孩比女孩多出百分之五十的挫败只怕。在那些群众体育的小朋友,因无所依靠和无所出色,而更有一点都不小只怕从本校停学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要知道为啥男子和女子在课堂内展现出这样反差,先从课堂之外活动入手。日常16虚岁女孩周周成本5.5时辰去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多一个钟头,他们费用越来越多时光玩电游和上网。3/4的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而唯有六分之三多点的男人这么做。随着显示屏慢慢把目光从书册挪开,世界上存有地点的阅读率正日趋下跌,而男人下落速度更加快。OECD发掘,在那么些和平常女子职业日常的男士中,在翻阅方面包车型大巴性别差距裁减了四分之二左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一执教,男人就渴望快点截止。在告诉中,多于女子2倍的男人感觉上课是浪费时间,并且更平常迟到。就好像过去教授努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD近期提出老人和战术拟订者指导男生远隔将忽视学术成就作为男子气概表现的这种主见。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着多姿多彩的压力。但不幸的是,他们希图在坏行为上不负被人梦想。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有那贰个办事可供未受教育男子选取时,男孩轻慢学园还显得没那么非理性。不过那二个生活已经消失。也可以有的自高自大有援助哥们学习数学,自信促使男子超过(但有的时候则成为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟稔”虚构缩放“这一定义,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩缺乏自律让教授很头痛。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

大概因为她俩这么令人为难忍受,青年男孩平日给予异常的低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在无名测量试验中的表现好于教授评估。在读书方面的性别差别收缩了52%;而在数学方面,已超过的汉子将差距拉大。另一切磋展现,因老师贫乏公平,就算技巧格外。男人也比女孩子更有希望被供给复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种反差对待?一种大概的解释是教师的资质给予这一个礼貌、热心和远远地离开争斗的学员越来越高分数,而这个特点在女孩中尤其广泛。在有的国家,乃至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种或者是,女人,构成了七成的小教的和相近八成的初级中学年古稀之年师,更偏好她们自个儿的性别,仿佛男子上级偏疼男子下属通常。在有些地点在French Open中也许有性别主义:新嘉坡如故允许鞭刑男性,而女人则免于该民法通则。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在有个别国家为男孩表现非凡提供了条件。在拉丁美洲,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对十分小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的男人落后于女人小于别的地方。不过,令人纠缠的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面超越于女人的歧异加大。反过来也创设。女孩与男孩在数学方面显示非常的冰岛、Noreg和Switzerland,挣扎于令人上火的逐月加宽的开卷方面性别差别。自贰零零肆年OECD最后一遍就此举行的常见考查彰显,少数国家男士在读书方面遭逢了女子,而在另一些国度女子成功减少了数学方面包车型大巴差别。但没有国家成功完成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

中教之后,女人的超过地位继续维持。直至新近数十年,男人大概占有大学的主流人群,极其是无可争辩与工程领域的高阶课程。但是,随着高教在世界范围的旭日初升,女性入学增进率差不离两倍于男人。在OECD报告称,女人注册率由壹玖捌壹年的48%上涨至二分之一,到2025年可能上升至一半。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

固然在个别女人是个外人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再逐级攀升。与此同期,一些席卷U.S.A.、U.K.和亚洲国度,女人比男子人口多于二分之一。在无数U.S.奇才公立大学中,性别比例越来越平衡。非常多个人认为那几个高校的不透明招生标准进一步偏好男人。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,以致于在非常短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇〇九年一份有关告知摘立时,大家“不信那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

跻身体高度校的女性,相对于他们的男子同僚,更有希望结束学业,且获得越来越好地培育。可是,男子和女人所选科目标偏侧区别。愈来愈多地女子选用教育、健康、艺术和人文学科,而男子更加多选择Computer、工程和精制科学等科目。在数学方面,女人正长久以来,而在正确、社科、商业和法则方面,她们处于超过地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相持于别的蓄意的宗旨,社会变革更利于于鼓劲女人步向高等教育。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的低沉,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子找寻工作提供了便利。随着越来越多女子步向工作条件,歧视变得没那么显然。一旦女子被期望全数专门的学业发展时,女孩就意识到上学的最首要。上涨的离异率使得女子开掘到自己供养的严重性。近些日子,无论是学业上大概职场上,世界各省的女孩比男孩表现出更齐齐哈尔想。莫明其妙,在19社会风气上半叶,差十分的少大半美利哥专门的职业防止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

这正是说,女子是不是逐步成为骨干性别?出版于2013年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提出,最少在U.S.,女子不但教育上超过,还在生意上和社会上打头。多数国度的政策制订者忧郁数量逐步攀升的下层阶级的引导程度很低的男子的前景前景。女人也相应顾虑那一点。在过去,女人常见与同阶层或高于本人阶层的男人成婚。要是这种男子比较少,大大多女人只好寻觅下阶层男性或选拔不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是全部,可是在相当多国家,高等教育投入对女人的报恩当先男人。一家访谈收入数据的厂商America PayScale开掘,女子对于高校教育水平的投资报酬率相对于男子来讲,异常低或(在最为情况下)相似。尽管女人完全表现更是,但她们薪金水平仅为男子的3/4。主要原因在于相对于工程或微型Computer科学等,女人选取教育、人文和社会科学那类报酬相当低科目。然则,学术切磋展现相对于男子,女人越来越少的好感薪金,呈现了谋求高回报并不是女子追求高教的要害原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的商业贸易和规范领域,女子依然少之又少。女子在全校所表现优势被转换局面。在学园,杂谈及考试评价是佚名的,性别因素被防止,而珍贵女性不受性别歧视的熏陶。然则,来自于United KingdomCraneField哲高校的Elisabeth Kelan称,在劳作地方古板方式再一次验证自身。同等数量的男子和女人投入理高校和法律大学,但是,10-15年之后,比非常多女人采纳了特别干燥的事情路径或花费越来越多时间陪孩子。与此同一时候,随着之前习得的经验的根本日益消退而脾气、雄心和阅历成为更为首要的震慑因素,男人在工作层级上渐渐攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

十分短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学或然职场,女子所占比重相差,因而必要时间去建构通往高层职位的水道。不过40年来讲,一些国度毕业生人数中女子产生主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据印度孟买理理大学文学教授Claudia高尔德in称,女子崛起的最终环节--平等的薪给和特级职业大概--若不实行大幅度结构调度是不会过来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AER的新型文献中,Goldin女士发掘高品质劳引力中,在劳作生活的10到15年间,男子小时薪俸与女子差别巨大,首要原因在于高收益专门的学业的小幅奖金决定于长日子专门的工作和每一日应对电话为前提。全部来说,男人相对于女人更擅长如此行事。在这种职业格局分布的天地,如商业和法规,性别工资差别照旧很大。并且,乃至长期离开专业条件也大概导致严重惩罚,意味着阿妈供给交给比较大代价。而当专门的工作薪俸首要借助理工科程师时长度时,就像是配药房,性别薪资差别非常的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有些专业是难以完成灵活性的,就如那三个COOs、法院开庭审判律师、口腔科医务卫生职员、银行家和一些资深政客们。而除此以外其余干活,工资而不是在于随时待命。相同的时间,受过非凡教育且想要脱离专门的工作的男人也会从当中收益。不过,新的性别差距位于薪资范围的另一端。受苦的绝不女人,而是无本领的男子。

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend反败为胜一种偏侧

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

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